The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transition period from 29 March 2019 to 31 December 2020, allowing the parties to make the necessary adjustments to legislation and practice for the future (see below the Political Declaration on the future relationship after 31 December 2020). For citizens of the EU and the United Kingdom, the free movement of persons applies until the end of the transition period. This will be achieved by transposing into the Withdrawal Agreement the provisions of Directive 2004/38 on the free movement of Union citizens. Chapter IX of the Declaration deals with mobility. EU citizens are subject to the principles of non-discrimination and reciprocity. This means that the UK is supposed to treat all EU citizens equally and, for example, not introduce visa requirements for some EU citizens (Bulgarians and Romanians, perhaps), but not for others. Visa-free travel for short-term visits is planned, but the EU is introducing a pre-authorisation system called ETIAS, similar to the US ESTA system, which will apply to UK citizens in their new status as third-country nationals. Studies, training and youth exchanges are to be expected. The coordination of social security will also be discussed. Nothing else is planned or promised for passenger transport. Indeed, the declaration announces the death knell of free movement between the United Kingdom and the EU. The United Kingdom will be able to conclude trade agreements with third countries; However, the customs union would significantly limit the UK`s ability to have significantly different trade relations with it, particularly with regard to goods.
The UK would have more leeway to offer different conditions for trade in services and areas such as government procurement. On 23 January 2020, the UK Parliament approved the draft agreement by passing the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020. Following the signing of the Agreement, the Government of the United Kingdom issued and deposited the instrument of ratification of Great Britain on 29 January 2020.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020 after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union took place on 11.m. . .